I porti della Puglia

La Puglia, con i suoi 850 km di costa circa, ha il privilegio di essere una delle regioni italiane con la maggior superficie di contatto tra terra e mare. La vocazione marina della Puglia ha sempre giocato un ruolo fondamentale nelle dinamiche territoriali, sia per lo sviluppo produttivo ed economico della regione, sia per gli intensi scambi culturali con le altre sponde del Mediterraneo, ma anche per l’importanza strategica che i numerosi approdi marini rivestono nel sistema infrastrutturale a scala nazionale.
La lunga linea di costa è infatti scandita in maniera variamente regolare dalla presenza dei moltissimi porti in Puglia, le cui conformazioni, dimensioni e funzioni molto variegate tra loro, consentono di offrire una molteplicità di servizi per chi si muove per mare sia per lavoro, che per turismo, che per necessità di spostamento.

Tra i porti della Puglia di maggiore importanza vi sono senza dubbio quelli che presentano allo stesso tempo caratteri commerciali, mercantili e turistici, come ad esempio il Porto di Bari ed il Porto di Brindisi, che, oltre ad essere effettivi hubs internazionali per lo scambio intermodale delle merci e, pertanto, punti calamitati delle rotte intercontinentali, risultano sin dall’antichità i principali punti d’approdo e di partenza per le connessioni tra Italia e Balcani (Albania, Montenegro, Croazia), nonché Grecia e Turchia. Un altro porto fondamentale per lo sviluppo economico e commerciale dell’intera nazione è il porto di Taranto, che sebbene abbia una valenza per lo più militare, risulta essere il secondo in Italia per il numero di merci scambiate, sia per le esportazioni, che per le importazioni dal Mediterraneo, dal Medio Oriente e dalla Cina.

Ma nel panorama marittimo nazionale spiccano soprattutto per il fascino e la bellezza i porti turistici di Puglia, che pur essendo spesso di dimensioni ridotte, godono di grande pregio paesaggistico per il contesto architettonico ed ambientale in cui sono incastonati, nonché per l’illustre passato storico che spesso è associato a questi luoghi. E’ ad esempio il caso della località di Porto Cesareo, ubicata sul versante ionico della Penisola Salentina, fondata già in epoca romana, come testimoniano i ritrovamenti di colonne di marmo cipollino oramai sommerse a causa dell’innalzamento del livello delle acque, con il nome di Portus Sasinae, citato da Plinio nei suoi scritti. L’antico porto ebbe un florido sviluppo grazie agli intensi scambi commerciali dei prodotti agricoli coltivati nell’entroterra, ed oggi è uno dei più noti porti di Puglia, non solo per l’ancora attuale importanza strategica del suo approdo, ma anche e soprattutto per la bellezza delle coste prospicienti l’area portuale, sedi dell’Area Marina Protetta e della Riserva Naturale Orientata Regionale Palude del Conte e Duna Costiera, nonché per la valenza architettonica del sistema delle torri di avvistamento saracene che in antichità costituivano un complesso sistema di sorveglianza e protezione del litorale.

Risultano essere meritevoli di attenzione, inoltre, alcuni suggestivi porti in cui la caratteristica presenza dei pescherecci e delle antiche piccole imbarcazioni tradizionali da pesca, ben si concilia con le moderne attrezzature che forniscono sistemi di accoglienza turistica all’avanguardia ed adeguati anche all’accoglienza di imbarcazioni da diporto di svariate dimensioni, come nel caso del porto di Bisceglie, di Trani e di Gallipoli.

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